Wednesday, September 21, 2005

Italians in Bam Citadel

Three teams of Italian archaeologists and restoration experts will work on one of Bam Citadel towers.

Tehran, 21 September 2005 (CHN)

Three teams of Italian archaeologists and restoration experts under the supervision of Giuseppe Proietti, head of the research, innovation, and organization department of Minstero per i Beni e le Attivita Culturali will do research and excavations in the tower one of the Bam Citadel.

After the inscription of Bam Citadel on the World Heritage List of UNESCO, this historical site attracted the world attention to itself and a lot of efforts both technically and financially have been made so far for restoration and salvation of this unique adobe monument in the world, 80% of which was destroyed in the earth quake that hit the area in 2003.

The first group of the Italian teams under the supervision of Giuseppe Proietti arrived in Iran this week. The team consists of four persons, who have provided several plans from the first tower of Bam Citadel with laser scanning instruments to study the structure and design of this tower,” says Eskandar Mokhtari, head of Bam Salvation Project.

According to Mokhtari, this group leaves Iran today and on 26 of September, another team of Italian archaeologists will arrive in Bam for stratigraphy of the tower, which will last a week. After the initial studies the third team will start the restoration according to the provided plans and previous excavations.

In the 29th session of UNESCO World Heritage committee which was held in Durban in South Africa, UNESCO praised the so-far attempts of Iranian officials and countries helping in the project including Japan and Italy. The earthen city of Bam is one for the most important historical and cultural cities in the world which dates back to 2000 years ago.

Monday, July 25, 2005

UNESCO General Secretary
Kuichiro Matsuura

Acknowledged Iran’s efforts for Rescuing Bam

In an unprecedented event, UNESCO general secretary, in an official letter acknowledged Iranian efforts to rescue Bam heritage and thanked the head of the project.

Tehran – 25 July, 2005 (CHN) – UNESCO acknowledged the Bam rescue project manager and Iranian efforts for rescuing the cultural heritage of Bam.

UNESCO General Secretary, Kuichiro Matsuura, mentioned in his official letter “My trip to Bam prepared an opportunity for me witness the professional, archeological, and research activities closely.”

“Listening to the history of Bam was instructive and interesting for me,” he added, hoping great success for future efforts of Iranians.

Three months ago, paying a visit to Bam, Matsuura visited the latest activities of experts for rescuing the heritages of the city ruined by earthquake 2003.
Eskandar Mokhtari, the manager of Bam heritage rescue project, pointed out that receiving such letter from the general secretary of UNESCO has never happened before so it is of utmost importance.

More than 60 percent of Bam citadel, one of the biggest clay complexes in the world, was ruined by the earthquake of December 2003. The structure dated back to two thousand years ago. In the 29th meeting of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee the authorities involved in rescuing Bam heritage were acknowledged and the world community was asked to continue its help.

Seeking help from international organizations including UNESCO, Iran Cultural Heritage and Tourism organization has executed numerous missions for rescuing Bam historical sites since the earthquake stroke in 2003. Bam cultural landscape was registered on UNESCO World Heritage list in the 28th meeting of UNESCO World Heritage committee which was held in China last year.

Sunday, July 24, 2005


Bam Inscription Dossier
to be handed
by February

Cultural Heritage and Tourism organization was made incumbent by World Heritage committee to submit the dossier concerning the inscription of Bam cultural landscape by February next year while it has been placed on the list of world heritage since Bam devastating earthquake last year.

Tehran – 23 July, 2005 (CHN) – Responding to world heritage committee request, Iran Cultural Heritage and Tourism organization and Bam cultural heritage rescue team will submit the completed dossier for inscription of Bam cultural landscape by February.

Bam cultural landscape that includes Bam castle, and its ancient sites, gardens, and ducts was urgently registered on the list of world heritage last year, right after the devastating earthquake in the city.

“We are sure that we can prepare the extensive reconstruction plan of Bam and its management program before the deadline set by UNESCO” said Eskandar Mokhtari.

“Currently,” asserted Shahriar Adl, the international expert of cultural heritage, “we are negotiating for a contract of mapping the eastern district of Bam under the supervision of Iranian institute of topography. The next phase of the procedure would be the completion of mapping the northwest district that includes prehistoric and Neolithic artifacts.”

Bam region had several historical monuments, such as Bam castle, and also archeological sites dating back to the Achaemenid era, most of which were damaged in the earthquake.

UNESCO World Heritage Committee in its 29th session in Durban, South Africa had asked the Iranian officials to complete their report on Bam and its cultural landscape to be studied in February, 2005.

Wednesday, July 20, 2005

Bam; The History of The Town

The History Of The Town

Siamak D. Ahi

In search for hitory of Bam, encyclopaedia iranica is the most reliable and concise source to begin with. Unfortunately it covers until mid 1970s, when probably the title "Bam" was published.
The second problem is the language of iranica, which is meant for scholars and researchers. Iranica, uses special fonts, characters and phonetics not used in every book. Provides lots of references in the middle of sentences and finally making reading and following the story hard and slow.
Here, I tried to transfer that history in simple text, without missing any fact. and write it with commonly used fonts. I deleted many references and added subtitles to make the history simple to follow. --Siamak D. Ahi
For your further study, here is the link to encyclopedia iranica:

Bam, in Arabic Bamm, is a town located in southeastern Iran on the southwestern rim of Dasht-e Loot basin. At an altitude of 1100m.

The Large Oasis

Bam is a large Oasis that owes its existence to the run off from Jabal-e Barez Mountains. During the wet season rivers such as Tahroud, which traverses the town, provide enough flow to run the mills. However, since the dry season last most of the year, particularly important to town is the survival of its underground system of twenty five waterways, Ghanaats.

Though Bam, at 1100m. Altitude, is generally considered hot region, Gharm-seer, is known for a variety of cold region, Saard-seer, produces.

Bam; Origins, Travellers’ Notes

The town may owe its name to term ‘Vahma’. Vahma means prayer and glorification. Whatever the case, Bam appeared for the first time in 9th/10th Century Arab geographies. Bam was founded by Sasanians during their settlement of Kerman and southeastern Iran.

It seems to have been a walled stronghold in a region plagued by repeated incursions and banditry. Estakhri characterizes the citadel as impregnable.

Aside from date farming, Bam’s economy was chiefly based on cotton, which sustained a prosperous artisan class. Durable and prized cotton fabric, embroidered veils, cloak, kerchiefs and turbans. These products of Bam were exported to Khorasan, Mesopotamia, and even as far as Egypt.

According to Minorsky, in addition to citadel, Bam also boasted three Friday mosques. Two served the orthodox community and one the small but well-off Kharijites.

Moghadasi mentions the foul-tasting water of Bam, and Ghanaats provided the main supply.

First Original Description of Bam

In 1810 Lieutenant Henry Pottinger (1789-1856) visited the town and an original description of Bam appeared.

The accounts of arab geographers were repeated more or less by subsequent authors (Nozhat al-gholoub), and it is not until 1810, when leutanent Henry Pottinger (1789-1856) visited the town and an original description of Bam appeared.

Bam as Frontier Fortress,

In the 18th century, Bam’s role as a frontier fortress became paramount. The town was occupied by Afghans twice, in 1719 and during the period of 1721-30. Bam emerged as the forward Iranian position vis-à-vis the Gel-zay tribe, which probably with Nader Shah-e Afshaar’s authorization, established himself in neighboring Narmaa-shir.

The shi’ite Gel-zays seem to have been on good terms with Zands, for Lotf-ali Khan-e Zand fled in their direction after the fall of Keman (1794).
During the entire intervening period, the Bam was a strategically important projection of Iranian power. First it served as an Il-khanid and later as Safavid outpost in Baluchestan

Final Victory of Qajar over Zand in Bam

In 1795, the governor of Bam captured Lotf-Ali Khan and turned him to the founder of Qajar dynasty. Agha Mohamad Khan-e Qajar to commemorate his victory over the last of his Zand rivals, erected a pyramid of their skulls. Nineteen years later, it was still visible to Pottinger according to his book: Travels in Baloochistan and Sinde. London, 1816.
Coming of Baluchi Tribes

The Gel-zays were driven out from Narmaa-shir in1801 and replaced by Baluchi tribes. But the town was strongly fortified in 1810 and remained so during the first half of 19th century, due to insecurity of the region. Bam was occupied once again by Agha Khan-e Mahalati during 1840-41 insurrection and remained unsettled until around 1855.

Peace and Prosperity in Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

The restoration of peace allowed the town to grow beyond its walls, and a new settlement was founded along the river in enclosed gardens and date groves, 1000m southwest of Bam.

Unfettered by walls and fear of invasion, Bam rapidly expanded at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century. In 1881, Bam lost its status as Baluchistan’s governor seat to Bam-pour. Because the governor who normally resided in Bam-pour, preferred the milder weather there.
Population Growth

Population estimates vary from E. Smith, eight to nine thousand to O. B. St. John‘s, two thousand families, and to Gasteiger‘s six thousand in 1881.
In 1895, P. M. Sykes estimated the population to be thirteen thousand. And the same figure was cited by A. Gabriel in 1928.

Growth of Commercial Activity

Commercial activity also grew apace during this period. Bam, Bazar was considered “small and Poor” by St. John, “Miserably small and Insignificant” by E. Smith in 1872, and it is called “little” by E. Sykes in 1895.

But in 1928, it seemed bustling to A. Gabriel; the covered bazar consisted of two distinct parts. A separate Zoroastrian section was occupied by some fifty Parsi merchants. Bazar was the site of felt hat, Kolaah, and sandal, Maleki, manufacturing . The Bazar also served as central distribution point for the regions agricultural products and handicrafts.

Henna, indigo, rice and dates were exported to Kerman, and objects made by artisans in Yazd and Kerman, reached the east of Iranian Baluchestan through Bam.

Bam in 1970s

Today Bam remaind an important commercial hub and the seat of its own county, shahrestan, and has an enhanced administrative role. As of 1973, the Bazar contained 576 commercial establishments, 105 itinerant merchants. There are several small scale building material factories and food processing plants, primarily dates and citrus.

The Overall population has grown from 15.737 in 1956, and to 21.761 a decade later. In 1976 it reached 30.422, most of which were engaged in agriculture.

In contrast to Narmaa-shir with its highly diversified agriculture, Bam agriculture in the last quarter century has come to be virtually dominated by dates and citrus farming, which are mainly marketed in Tehran.

In recent years however, certain grains and alfalfa have been cultivated among fruit trees. They provide many yearly harvests of winter feed for livestock, principally sheep and goats.

Tuesday, July 12, 2005

History of Bam and Arg

تاريخچه بم
History of Bam from:
Hamshahri newspaper

بم در قديم يكي از پنج كوره ايالات فارس بود. بم در مسير جاده‌هايي كه جنوب شرقي ايران را با سيستان، افغانستان، و بلوچستان مرتبط مي‌كند قرار دارد. به همين جهت اين شهر از از دوره ساسانيان اهميت نظامي و بازرگاني زيادي داشته است. اين شهر در سال 1131 هجري قمري به تصرف محمود افغان در آمد، ولي به علت شورشي كه در قندهار روي داد آنجا را رها كرده و عازم قندهار شدولي بار ديگر در سال 1134 هجري قمري بر بم استيلا يافت و اين وضع تا سال 1143 كه نادر، اشرف افغان را شكست داد ادامه داشت. در همين شهر بود كه لطفعلي خان زند در سال 1209 هجري قمري توسط آقا محمد خان قاجار دستگير شد. خان قاجار به يادگار اين موفقيت كله مناره‌اي از سرهاي 600 تن از مخالفين خود در بم بر افراشت. شهر و قلعه باستاني بم يكي از يادگارهاي شگفت معماري فلات مركزي ايران مي‌باشد.

ارگ قديم بم
History of Arg-e Bam
Hamshahri newspaper
ارگ بم در شمال شرقي شهر بم و در دامنه صخرهاي عظيم واقع شده است. اين قلعه، شهر قديمي بم مي‌باشد اين قلعه از سه جهت به باغ‌ها، خانه‌هاي مسكوني و زمين‌هاي كشاورزي منتهي مي‌شود و از سمت شمال در امتداد رودخانه‌اي قرار گرفته است. اين شهر قديمي از چهار قسمت و 38 برج ديده باني تشكيل شده و مساحت آن در حدود 20000 متر مربع است. گرداگرد اين قلعه داراي خندق عميق مي‌باشد تا از يورش بيگانگان مصون بماند. مصالح اصلي بنا خشت خام، گل رس و كاه است، ولي در بعضي قسمتهاي آن سنگ و آجر و تنه درخت خرما نيز به كار رفته است.
ارگ بم از قسمتهايي تشكيل شده كه عبارتند از: دروازه ورودي، محله عامه نشين، سربازخانه و بناي مركزي (حاكم‌نشين).
در ارگ بم خانه‌هاي عمومي كنار كوه، روي زمين مسطح بنا شده و از نظر شهرسازي و عناصر زندگي شهري، مجموعه كاملي است كه تا حدودي نيازهاي جامعه زمان خود را رفع مي‌كردند.
مكان‌هاي شناخته شده آن بازار، حسينيه، مسجد، آتشكده، زورخانه، حمام‌عمومي و سابات جهودها است. مجموعه بناي حاكم نشين را عمارت چهارفصل و خانه‌اي تشكيل مي‌دهد. عمارت چهار فصل سه طبقه دارد كه محل استقرار حكومت قلعه بوده است. اين بنا كه به دوران پيش از اسلام مربوط مي‌شود توسط بهمن‌بن اسفنديار ساخته شده است.